Monday, March 16, 2009

My NHL: Re-Branding the National Hockey League

Case Study by Jess Mikula and Han Ma

Situation Analysis

September 16, 2004 marked the start of the 2004-2005 National Hockey League (NHL) lockout, a labor dispute which resulted in the cancellation of the 88th season of the NHL. Lasting 310 days, the lockout was the first time that a major North American professional sports league canceled an entire season due to a labor dispute. For the first time since 1919, the Stanley Cup was not awarded.

The league attempted to convince the NHL Players Association (NHLPA) to accept a salary structure in order to guarantee teams what the league deemed “cost certainty.” On July 21, 2004, the NHL presented the NHLPA with six different options for cost certainty. The NHLPA rejected all six options, preferring to keep the system in place where players negotiate with teams on an individual basis. Teams had control over how much they wanted to spend on their players. However, several teams had declared bankruptcy. The NHL wanted to guarantee a competitive balance among all teams rather than give the more wealthy franchises an unfair advantage.

There was a series of meetings held between the NHL and the players association in which the sides exchanged proposals, but both sides remained deadlocked on the issue. The league and NHLPA exchanged a series of offers and counter-offers before NHL Commissioner Gary Bettman sent a letter on February 15, 2005, with a final proposal and a deadline of 11:00 a.m. the following day. The players association presented a counter-offer, which the NHL rejected. Bettman announced the official cancellation of the 2004-2005 season on February 16, 2005.

The sides reconvened in June to prevent the cancellation of another season. On July 13, 2005, the league and NHLPA reached a deal in principle, meaning no contract was officially signed. Both the league and players association wanted to make the announcement that day because it was the only day of the year when none of the four major North American sports (basketball, baseball, football, and hockey) had an event scheduled. On July 21, 2005, the Collective Bargaining Agreement was ratified by the NHLPA, and the owners approved it the following day to officially end the lockout.

As a result of the lockout, the NHL alienated its fans. In order to make it up to them, the league implemented several rule changes to make the game more exciting for fans by increasing entertainment value and promoting scoring. Among the rule changes were an increase in the size of each team’s offensive zone, smaller equipment for goaltenders, and the elimination of tie games. Under the new rule, tie scores are settled with a five-minute, four-on-four, sudden-death overtime period followed by a one-on-one shootout until a winner is determined. Both the players and coaches were also made more accessible to the fans by the addition of microphones during telecasts. As part of an integrated marketing initiative, the NHL looked to a re-branding effort to recreate the league’s brand and image, while reviving the sport of hockey in the United States.


The NHL hired four separate outside agencies to handle its re-branding efforts. Conductor, a branding and entertainment marketing firm, was the lead agency in the campaign. CarryOn Communications, a public relations agency, was responsible for managing the brand and consumer public relations efforts. PHD, a media planning and buying group, was responsible for conducting general media services. Rogers & Cowan, an entertainment public relations agency, was responsible for handling entertainment public relations opportunities. This case study focuses on the efforts of the lead agency involved in the campaign, Conductor Entertainment.

Conductor developed the “My NHL” campaign, which featured the game of hockey as a battle with the players in warrior roles. The company did this primarily through print and television advertisements, which were able to be customized for each of the 30 teams, as well as used for the league as a whole. Conductor developed a five-part series of 30 second advertisements, which were designed to play both individually and back-to-back as a short film. The commercials told the story of the hockey player, beginning with his pre-game preparations and continuing to the end of the game and victory. The segments were entitled It’s Time, It Begins, Battle, Victory, and Everyone’s Game. They incorporated Chinese proverbs about battle, will, and strength. Everyone’s Game, the final segment of the series, emphasized the importance of the fans to the game. The shorter advertisements were shown in arenas and on local television stations, while the full-length spot was shown in movie theaters with the trailers, on airlines, on the NHL’s website, on corporate partner websites, and in-retail television networks.

The concept of “My NHL” was a completely integrated marketing campaign. Each individual team incorporated the advertisements into its marketing efforts, splicing the commercials with video highlights. The “My NHL” slogan was also incorporated by each franchise, edited for the team. For example, the Ottawa Senators used “My Sens” as a slogan. The league conveyed this one central, unified message through print materials such as each team’s media guide cover.

The campaign was launched in September 2005, just before the start of the 2005-2006 season, through a premiere in New York (the location of the NHL league office) similar to that of a major Hollywood movie. Conductor and the NHL advertised the premiere event, creating buzz. Before the event, representatives from both the league and Conductor made appearances on major television networks such as E!, reaching out to the female fans. Players from the Tampa Bay Lightning, the defending Stanley Cup champions, attended the event to show their support for the campaign and “celebrate the return of hockey,” according to Commissioner Gary Bettman.


It is widely debated whether or not the “My NHL” campaign was a success. Conductor’s efforts attracted an extraordinary amount of local and national press coverage both in the United States and Canada, garnering mixed reviews. Coaches and players embraced the campaign. Brendan Shanahan, a player for the Detroit Red Wings said, “Wow, the warrior, that’s what I feel like” when shown the advertisements. Conductor and the NHL were praised by multiple publications for their efforts. Brandweek named the “My NHL” campaign “Best Attempt at Reincarnation” in its “Best and Worst Marketing Ideas of 2005.” The commercials won 17 Telly awards for excellence in film production in multiple categories.

The advertisements also caused controversy with some people deeming them “offensive” to women. Martha Burk, the National Council of Women’s Organizations chair who was known for staging an unsuccessful protest outside of the Augusta National golf club, called the advertisements “gratuitous” and stated that the woman in the locker room is a sex object. This ultimately attracted more media attention, though Burk’s claims were dismissed. The commercials were never pulled from the NHL website or NBC.

The league’s revenue goals were surpassed by $300 million, and NHL ticket sales reached record numbers. According to research in USA Today, attendance at games rose 4 percent from the 2003-2004 season, and arenas were filled to 91.1 percent capacity. Twenty-one of the NHL’s 30 teams showed increased attendance, with three teams showing the same attendance because they were selling out before the lockout.

However, national television ratings actually fell. This may be due largely to the lack of a deal with a major network. Prior to the lockout, the NHL had an exclusive deal with ESPN to broadcast games. After the lockout, however, ESPN did not renew the deal. The NHL turned to Outdoor Life Network (now Versus) to broadcast games. This switch made it difficult for the audience to watch games without an expensive sports package like DirecTV’s Center Ice.

Football, Dogs & Money - The Michael Vick Story By: Brian Heenan

Just a heads up...I was not assigned a case study as this was more of a research paper. So do not expect the 4-steps or SWOT's that you're used to. This is entirely different. It is broken down into sections: Backround on Vick and Dogfighting, Vick's role in Dogfighting, PETA and Pit bulls, Where Vick is now, other athletes who have fallen from grace, interviews, and finally Vick's steps to a comeback. And since I am doing this by myself, I really don't want to stand up there for a half an hour and talk away. I'll get bored and you will too. So I was hoping we could have more of a back and forth throughout the presentation and if you have a question or comment at any time along the way, please blurt it out and don't wait till the end. We'll see how it goes....


Michael Vick:
Michael Vick was born in Newport News, Virginia on June 26, 1980. Growing up, Newport News did not provide the safest and healthiest environment for Vick, or any child for that matter. It was a rough and tumble place that produced gang members and drug dealers, not top-notch professional athletes. The choice to stay local for college may have had a bad influence on Vick and his extracurricular activities. Growing up as a prominent athlete in Newport News wasn’t necessarily a good thing. Another local athlete, Allen Iverson, was always followed around by a troublesome posse that claimed to be his friends. They knew he would be rich and famous one day so they all tried to stick around him so they could eventually live off of his success. But as Newport News was known for its crime and gangs, trouble always seemed to follow Iverson. Vick would eventually deal with a similar problem. Had he gone to Syracuse, his ties with the “local thugs” in Newport News would likely have been snapped. However, it wouldn’t be until much later in his career that Vick’s association with these people would bite him in the rear, no pun intended.

Dog Fighting:
Gambling is nothing new to this, or any other country. The activity of wagering bets on various sporting events has been around for hundreds of years. Traditional bets are placed on football, basketball, boxing and horseracing. But one of the most violent and cruel gambling “sports” is the underground gambling ring of dog fighting. While dog fighting is a form of entertainment and a venue for illegal gambling, it is also a means to create personal revenue. A person or group who run(s) a dog fighting ring often charge admission to fights, but also cash in breeding winning dogs. Dogs are often judged on their “gameness,” or willingness/desire to fight. As this is the most valuable trait in dog fighting dogs, the more game they have, the more money they will earn. This also trickles down to puppy litters. According to the ASPCA, the owner of any grand champion, a dog that has won at least five fights, can sell the dog's puppies for at least $1,500 each.
Dog fighting in North America is illegal. This poses a big problem for those involved in the sport, but an even bigger problem for organizations such as the ASPCA and PETA. These dog fighting rings are hard to find. Invitations to them are top secret and with little or no warning. One of the most brutal aspects of this “sport” is how owners train their dogs to fight. The dogs are abused, starved, often times tied up with extremely heavy chains and beaten. This abuse is used to toughen the animals up and prepare them for fights. Another awful element of training these dogs is that owners and trainers will often roam neighborhoods and streets to steal dogs right out of homes and backyards. The trainer will then break one of the dogs legs or handicap it in some way so their fighting dog can train against a dog that will not harm them back. Such behavior is murder. It is barbaric. And organizations like PETA are doing everything they can to put it to a stop.


Vick’s cousin, Davon Boodie, was arrested on suspicion of drug possession and ended up giving police the address to one of Vick’s properties in Smithfield, Va. When police searched the property on Moonlight Road, they found enough evidence to seek another warrant involving animal cruelty. It was then that Michael Vick was immediately tied to dog fighting, yet Vick decided to play the innocent card and blame his ignorance for not knowing such activities were going on at his household. He initially placed blame on the family members who lived in the house for what was found there. According to an article from Sports Illustrated, Vick said, “It’s unfortunate that I have to take the heat…lesson learned for me.”
However, the evidence against Vick, and/or, his “friends” was overwhelming. As police searched the property, they found unmistakable evidence of a professional dogfighting operation. Deep in the woods behind the house, there were five smaller buildings all painted pitch black in an effort to hide the operation as nearly all dogfights are held at night. There were scales, treadmills to exercise the dogs, “rape stands” which are devices that hold aggressive dogs in place in the breeding process, “break sticks” to pry open a dog’s jaws, syringes, as well as diuretics and nutritional supplements. Another building housed over 30 dogs, mostly pit bull terriers, as nearly another 30 were found outside on leashes that were tied to car axles buried in the ground. Months later, Vick and three other men were indicted on dogfighting charges for activity over a six year period. Vick signed a plea agreement and a statement of facts admitting to conspiracy in a dogfighting ring and helping kill pit bulls, according to But Vick denied betting on the fights, only bankrolling them.


The treatment of dogs in these fighting rings is hard to describe and brutally painful to watch. The dogs are beaten and neglected during training. The dogs are then forced into a ring with another dog that may or may not kill it. And then the losing dogs are killed by their owners often minutes after the fight. People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals, or PETA, is the largest animal rights organization in the world. PETA works through public education, research, animal rescue, legislation, protest campaigns, and in the case of Michael Vick, cruelty investigations. But as PETA studied the case and examined the dogs on Vick’s property, they believed that the saved dogs were beyond rehabilitation and that trying to save them would be both a waste of time and money. “The cruelty they’ve suffered is such that they can’t lead what any dog lover would consider a normal life,” said PETA spokesman Dan Shannon. “We feel that it’s better that they have their suffering ended once and for all.”
However, it turned out that 47 of the 51 dogs at Badnewz Kennels were rescued and brought to shelters for rehabilitation. With such an incredible number, the rescue teams credited the demeanor of the pit bull breed and downplayed the image that pit bulls have in society. Much of society is terrified of these dogs and sees them as vicious, mean and threatening. But the reality is that pit bulls are quite friendly. PETA’s stance on Michael Vick is currently in limbo. The organization teamed with Vick to film an anti-dogfighting public service announcement. Vick’s attorneys sought assurance from PETA that they would support Vick’s return to football if he filmed the PSA. However, their initial agreement broke down and PETA is asking Vick to submit a brain scan and full psychiatric evaluation before he be declared eligible to return to the NFL


After Michael Vick admitted to conspiracy in dog fighting, killing pit bulls and bankrolling fights, he began serving his sentence early and voluntarily entered prison on November 19, 2007. Vick started serving his time at the Northern Neck Regional Jail in Warsaw, Va. However, by early January of 2008, Vick was transferred to a minimum security prison in Leavenworth, Kansas. In an effort to reduce his 23-month sentence, Vick entered a drug treatment program at the Kansas prison. The program at the prison takes place in units set apart from the general prison population, lasting at least 500 hours over a six to 12 month period, according to Bureau of Prisons policy. As of February 2009, Vick’s lawyers expected Vick to be released to a halfway house in Newport News, Va. But as the move was being arranged, news broke that there was a lack of bed space at the halfway house in Virginia, which meant that Vick would be allowed to finish his sentence under home confinement at his 3,500-square-foot home in Hampton, Va. An anonymous official familiar with the case said that Vick would be allowed to make the move home on or after May 21, according to


Arguably one of the most disappointing things in sports is wasted talent. From the four major sports (football, baseball, hockey, basketball), to lesser covered ones such as golf, boxing and NASCAR, prominent athletes have fallen from grace for one reason or another. Whether the athlete suffers from a drug or alcohol addiction, abuse, infidelity, violence or gambling, the sports world always seems to have a few current athletes that fall under the umbrella of “tremendous athlete, bad decision maker.” Michael Vick is currently wearing that shoe. However, athletes aren’t the only people in America that fit in this category. There have been plenty of politicians, actors, musicians and businesspersons that have made similar career-threatening mistakes. Bill Clinton, Clive Owen, Chris Brown and Martha Stewart have all done things to mar their careers and the public’s view of them. Some of these people have bounced back, even better than before; while others were never quite able to rebuild their image and earn back the trust of the American public. But as Michael Vick prepares to re-enter the real world and spark a comeback to the NFL, he should take note of what other fellow athletes did right, and what they did wrong in their attempted return to the sport they loved.


Every disgraced athlete tries to take the necessary steps to return their sport and regain the respect of their fans and peers. Some athletes have had great success, while others have failed miserably. It seems to be a case by case basis and largely depends on the individual’s image before their demise. Athletes like Mike Tyson could not return to their sport because of the negative reputation he had built for himself throughout his career. Kobe Bryant could return to his sport because of the positive All-American image he built for himself during the first six years of his career. And other athletes like Charles Barkley took a unique approach in their return to grace. Barkley simply said to the public, “I’m not a role model…Just because I dunk a basketball doesn’t mean I should raise your kids.” And in a way, the public seems to appreciate Barkley’s honesty and forgive him when he gets into trouble. But in evaluating whether or not Michael Vick could potentially have a successful comeback to the NFL, you have to look beyond what other athletes have done and find out, specifically, if those in the NFL would welcome or tolerate his return.
In order to get a true feel for whether or not Vick would be welcomed back at each of these different levels, I spoke with an NFL spokesperson, the nephew of an NFL owner and a current NFL player.
Victor Abiamiri: Victor Abiamiri, 23, is an NFL player who plays defensive end for the Philadelphia Eagles. “I can see why some players are upset and would not want Vick as a teammate and in their locker room. It would bring a lot of unwanted attention and create a whole lot of drama,” said Abiamiri. He continued, “But I also understand the players who don’t have an issue with it. There is something to be said that they are Vick’s dogs and it is his property, so if that’s what he wants to do, do it.” But the overall question asked to Abiamiri was if he would welcome Vick as a teammate. And his response was simple. “He’s a hell of a player and everyone deserves a second chance,” said Abiamiri. “I’d welcome him happily.”
Sean Rooney: Sean Rooney is the nephew of Dan Rooney, the owner and chairman of the Pittsburgh Steelers. When asked if the Rooney family would ever consider signing Vick, Sean Rooney believed that his family would not be likely to do so, but it had nothing to do with Vick’s behavior. Rooney believed that his family would forgive Vick for his actions and give him a chance, as a person. But he worried about Vick’s ability on the field. “If you’re talking about possibly three years out of the game, I don’t know how he (Vick) could not be affected,” said Rooney. He continued, “Vick’s legs and speed have always been his go-to and his development as a thrower has been halted for quite some time. To me, it’s over.”
Michael Signora: Michael Signora is the director of media relations and international communications for the National Football League. Signora was very political with his response when asked whether or not he thought the NFL would reinstate Michael Vick after his jail time. “Michael Vick was suspended indefinitely by Commissioner Goodell in 2007. He has not yet applied for reinstatement and when he does, the commissioner will consider the matter at that time,” said Signora, NFL spokesman. But when asked to put on a PR hat, Signora noted how a team should handle Vick’s return and pending backlash from the public. “They will certainly give thought to what message needs to be conveyed as an organization and who is the best person in the organization to convey that message,” said Signora. “This will likely be done in conjunction with the player and the message he will deliver when and if the time comes.”


In evaluating other fallen athlete’s attempted returns to their sport, Michael Vick can learn some things from his peers in an effort to better his chances of a successful return to football. In heeding the advice and following the path of these other athletes, Vick can start to construct a plan to convince the NFL to reinstate him and convince a team to give him a chance. NFL owners, NFL representatives and other NFL players all seem to have different views on the situation and share different sentiments in regards to Vick as a player and person. But if Vick employs a simple 3-step process, he can restore his image on the way to his triumphant comeback to the NFL. If Vick can recover from his wrongdoings, rebuild his superstar image and return with grace and humility, he just might make it.

Recover: Vick has already started taking the necessary steps to recover from his mistakes. He admitted his wrongdoings and issued many apologies to his team, the NFL, his family and fans. The audience that was most hurt from Vick’s behavior was the young children who looked up to him as a hero. He has personally apologized to that audience and must to continue to do so once his sentence is up.
Based on other athletes who have been in a similar situation, Vick must recover as a person before he recovers as an athlete. In order to make changes and start fresh, Vick must start with himself. Throughout this process, Vick has said that he has found Jesus and has built a strong faith that has allowed him to forgive himself and his actions. And the hope is that his personal forgiveness has been an ongoing process for the past two years. Because once he recovers as a person, he can start to recover as an athlete. And as that process continues, Vick must reiterate how apologetic he is to his fans because they are paramount in his recovery. While PETA and the ASPCA are strong and powerful organizations, Vick’s fan base could overwhelm those critics and be paramount in accepting him back, enabling him to move on from the recovery process and start to rebuild his image and career.

Rebuild: History has shown that the most important element in rebuilding an athlete’s tarnished image is media coverage. Obviously as Vick pleaded guilty to the dog fighting charges, there was nothing but negative stories in the media. Vick was labeled as a “thug,” as story after story emerged about his bad behavior and his “gang-like entourage” from Newport News. But what Vick has going for him is that this is his only blemish on his resume. And coming from the neighborhood where he grew up, there is something to say about that. Other troubled athletes repeatedly get in problematic situations and the media pounces on them, as they are permanently labeled as a troubled athlete with no chance at a return to their sport. But like the majority of the athletes before him, Vick is hopeful to get a second chance. But he is completely at the mercy of the media. As news broke that Vick was involved in a dog fighting ring and participated in the killing of dogs, he was the topic of news stories throughout the country. Talk show hosts, radio personalities, reporters and editors pounced on every detail of Vick’s plight. However, it has been nearly two years since the news broke and there has been very little written on Vick lately. But perhaps time is the one thing that Vick has on his side as he prepares for his return to football.

Return: While many NFL owners, teams and players believe that Vick will suffer from his time away from football, he might also gain from it. Obviously Vick has lost a touch of his speed and will need to train vigorously in order to get back into football shape. So while time away may have hurt him physically, it has also helped society mentally. Fans and media, like any human beings, often have a short memory. Vick’s bad behavior is not fresh in our minds. Other athletes who have had successful returns can credit the memory loss of society. Animal rights activists have not forgotten and they will be anxiously waiting to protest Vick’s return. So Vick can certainly expect backlash from animal organizations and lovers around the country which will certainly bring negative press. But again, two years have gone by and the majority of society and football fans will have forgotten the specific details of Vick’s behavior and forgive him for what he has done. PETA has also said that they will forgive, and even endorse, Vick if he takes and passes a psychiatric evaluation.
As time and society’s tendency to forgive and forget are on Vick’s side, so too is his God-given athletic ability. There is no doubt that one or more of the 29 NFL teams will give Vick a tryout, simply out of curiosity if nothing else. Vick was once the highest paid athlete in the history of the National Football League and a team could sign him now for very little monetary value. In terms of football, it would be a very low risk, high reward situation. But in terms of the public relations backlash, a team might not take a riskier chance all season. However, Vick seems so determined to return with a fresh start and a fresh team, that he will not blow this opportunity. Because history shows that if he is given a second chance, it could very well be his last.

Football, Dogs & Money - The Michael Vick Story

Sunday, March 1, 2009

The Dove Campaign for Real Beauty

The Dove Campaign for Real Beauty
Case Study by Olivia Falcione and Laura Henderson

The Dove Campaign for Real Beauty was started after Dove conducted a global study on beauty. The study called, The Real Truth About Beauty: A World Report confirmed a hypothesis that the definition for beauty had narrowed and impossible to attain. Dove found that:
§ Just 12 % of women are very satisfied with their physical attractiveness
§ Only 2 % of women describe themselves as beautiful
§ 68 % strongly agree that the media sets an unrealistic standard of beauty
§ 75 % wish the media did a better job in portraying the diversity of women's physical attractiveness, including size and shape, across all ages

When the economy has a downturn women stop shopping, but for higher end items such as shoes and purses, not beauty items. Marketing in the beauty industry is mainly geared toward women for good reason. Women compose over 50 percent of the United States population and they influence or buy 80 percent of products sold. These are influential numbers for any company.

Dove is the number one cleansing brand and is growing at more than 25 percent yearly. They are doing a sixth-month rollout of their hair care line. Unilever prides itself on advertising, announcing in 2002 a multi-million dollar advertising alliance with AOL Time Warner. Unilever expanded a co-marketing deal with Bally’s Total Fitness that makes Dove the exclusive sponsor and provider of personal hygiene products at almost 400 Bally’s fitness centers across the U.S and Canada. It is a crowded market and Dove wanted to separate themselves from the other companies and brands to generate higher sales.
Unilevers’ competitors include Proctor and Gamble, Estee Lauder, L’Oreal, Avon and others. All of these companies are experiencing growth and healthy sales. Proctor and Gamble is strengthening their leadership in Health Care and Beauty, two of 2003’s largest growing sectors. Proctor and Gamble has 5 billion dollar health care and beauty brands and they acquired a sixth in 2003. Meaning health care and beauty sales will account for half of the company’s sales and profits. In 2002, P&G reported net sales were $10.80 billion, up 11 percent versus 2001 sales.
Estee Lauder has recorded more than 45 consecutive years of annual sales increases. Estee Lauder’s net sales of all products sold in 130 countries reached $5.12 billion in 2003 this includes all labels-Estee Lauder, Clinique, Origins, Prescriptives and Aramis.
L’Oreal is the world’s largest beauty products company. In the past ten years the brand has shifted from 75 percent of sales in Europe to exporting brands around the world. Sales through June 2002 were €7.4 billion up from the first half of 2001 with €4 billion in consumer products and €1.8 billion in luxury products. L’Oreal aims for its 18th consecutive year of double-digit growth year-end 2002.
Avon is the world’s largest direct seller and sixth largest global beauty company with $6 billion in annual sales. Avon sells to women in 143 countries through 3.5 million independent sales representatives. Net sales have increased by 4 percent from 1997 to 2001 and this is expected to continue into 2003. Avon is starting a new line for younger consumers “mark”. It will launch in the fall of 2003 in the U.S. and in the second quarter of 2004 globally.
Beauty companies are doing well leading up to Dove’s launch of its Campaign for Real Beauty in 2004. The number of women in the United States and the influence they have on purchasing products make them the primary audience for consumer companies like Unilever to market towards. This combined with the results of women’s issues with the media’s portrayal of women create and ideal stage to launch a campaign focused on real women.

For years, the beauty industry and media have been constantly reminding women of the ideal body standards that have been set in today’s society. The Dove Campaign for Real Beauty, launched in 2004, was to support Dove’s mission of making women of all shapes and sizes feel beautiful every day, while widening stereotypical views of beauty. The campaign was inspired by a global study called “The Real Truth About Beauty: A Global Report.” As a company within the beauty industry, Dove wanted to have a better understanding of the issues regarding women and beauty by developing this study. Dove asked Dr. Nancy Etcoff, Harvard University professor and author of “Survival of the Prettiest,” and Dr. Susie Orbach, London School of Economics, visiting professor and author of “Fat is a Feminist Issue,” to help develop this global report. The study used quantitative data collected from an international study of 3,200 women from ten different countries between February 27, 2004 and March 26, 2004. Through the study, Dove aimed to explore the relationship women have with beauty, determine how women define beauty, learn the level of satisfaction with women’s beauty and the impact beauty has on the well-being of women. Through two key findings of the study, Dove was able to validate that the narrow definition of beauty is having a significant impact on the self-esteem of women today. The two findings are:
· Only 2% of women around the world consider themselves beautiful
· 81% of women in the United States strongly agree that “the media and advertising set an unrealistic standard of beauty that most women can’t ever achieve.”
In addition to these statistics, the study uncovered that only 5% of the women felt comfortable describing themselves as pretty and 9% felt comfortable describing themselves as attractive. When it came to body image and weight, women from all countries proved to be unsatisfied with themselves. The women of Japan had the highest levels of dissatisfaction with their body weight at 59%, followed by Brazil (37%), United Kingdom (36%), United States (36%), Argentina (27%) and the Netherlands (25%).
The study asked women about a wide range of issues regarding the mass media and pop culture. From all countries, cultures, ages, ethnicities and race, the women felt that there is a narrow definition of beauty. Specifically within today’s society, women acknowledged how they felt more pressure from the beauty standards set by the present mass media. Sixty-three percent strongly agreed that women today are expected to be more attractive than their mother’s generation.
The women surveyed believed that they are surrounded by unrealistic beauty images that are unattainable. The majority (76%) wished female beauty would be portrayed in the media as being made up more than just physical attractiveness. Also, seventy-five percent wished the media did a better job of portraying women of diverse physical attractiveness, including age, shape and size.
Based on these findings, Dove created The Campaign for Real Beauty to address the issues that were revealed in the study. Since the campaign has been launched, Dove has conducted numerous global and national studies. In 2005, Dove conducted the study, “Beyond Stereotypes: Rebuilding the Foundation of Beauty Beliefs.” This study collected information from 3,300 girls and women, between the ages of 15-64 from 10 different countries. This study was designed to explore self-esteem and the impact of beauty standards on both the lives of girls and women. The study showed that of the women and girls surveyed, 90% wanted to change at least one aspect of their physical appearance (with body weight ranking the highest). In addition, Dove found that 67% of all women withdrew from life-engaging activities due to feeling badly about their looks.
In 2006, Dove conducted the global report “Beauty Comes of Age.” The study surveyed a total of 1,450 women, aged 50-64, from 9 different countries. This report was done to help reveal the stereotypes associated with beauty and aging. Dove found that 91% of the women surveyed felt that the media and advertising need to do a better job of representing realistic images of women over 50. A vast majority of the women (97%) believed that society is less accepting of appearance considerations for women over 50 compared to their younger counterparts, especially when focused on the body.
In 2008, Dove commissioned the national report, “Real Girls, Real Pressure: A National Report on the State of Self-Esteem.” Girls ages 8-17 were surveyed and were asked questions based on the three areas of self-acceptance, confidence and emotional orientation. Scores were assigned based on how the girls rated themselves in the three areas. Girls were classified into three groups of high, average and low self-esteem, based on their individual scores. The report exposed that in the United States, seven in ten girls believe they are not good enough or do not measure up in some way, including their looks, academic performance and relationships with family and friends and 62% of all girls feel insecure or not sure of themselves. In comparing girls’ level of self esteem and their feelings on their own beauty, 71% of girls with low self-esteem felt their appearance did not measure up, including not feeling pretty enough, thin enough or stylish or trendy enough. This was compared to 29% of girls with high self-esteem.

Dove created The Dove Campaign for Real Beauty to help start a societal change and an expansion of the definition and discussion of beauty. The campaign supports Dove’s mission “to make more women feel beautiful everyday by widening stereotypical views of beauty.” The campaign uses advertising, a Web site, billboards, events, workshops, viral marketing and a Self-Esteem fund in Dove’s effort to create a global discussion about beauty with women all over the world. Rather than using professional models, the campaign stands by Dove’s mission in using “real” women of various ages, shapes and sizes to promote discussion and debate about the narrow beauty standards and images set in today’s society.

The Dove Campaign for Real Beauty was communicated to the public through a variety of print and television advertisements, a Web site, workshops and films. The campaign that launched in September 2004 began with an advertising campaign that featured women whose appearance strayed from the stereotypical beauty standards that are commonly seen in the media. Dove wanted to get “real” feedback by having the ads ask viewers to judge the women’s appearances. Viewers were asked to cast their votes on Dove’s Web site, The second phase of the campaign launched in June 2005 was print and outdoor advertisements that featured six everyday women who had real bodies and real curves. This phase was created to challenge the ideal body type standards set by the media. In February 2007, the third phase of the campaign was introduced with Dove using advertisements that targeted women 50 years and older. Annie Leibovitz, a world renowned photographer, was the artist behind the print and television advertisements, which celebrated the beauty in older women. Currently, the campaign focuses on young girls and self-esteem. For this part of the campaign Dove created self-esteem workshops and online self-esteem tools for mothers and daughters. In addition, Dove has created online films such as “Evolution,” “Onslaught” and “True Colors” which was a highly regarded commercial during the 2006 Super Bowl. Many of the tools used for the campaign are funded by the Dove Self-Esteem Fund. In the US, the fund supports Uniquely ME!, a program of the Girl Scouts of the United States, which aims to build confidence and self-esteem in young girls.

The campaign launched in England in September 2004. The Dove campaign was inspired by the study “The Real Truth about Beauty: A Global Report.” According to the Campaign for Real Beauty Mission, “the study validated the hypothesis that the definition of beauty had become limiting and unattainable.” The study showed that the narrow beauty standards were having a significant impact on the self-esteem of women. The Dove Campaign for Real Beauty was created to address this issue by attempting to widen the definition of beauty.

The results of this campaign were overwhelming from the consumers and the media. The goal was to reach 5 million young people with the Self-Esteem Fund by 2010 and according to their Web site, they have reached 2 million already.
The campaign returned $3 for every $1 spent. Dove’s page on Unilever’s Web site says that the current campaign has been shown on over 25 major TV channels and in more than 800 articles in opinion leading newspapers as well as in popular women’s magazines. In the first six months of the campaign, sales of Dove’s firming products increased 700 percent in Europe and in the United States, sales for the products in the advertisements increased 600 percent in the first two months of the campaign. In 2004, the first year of the campaign, global sales surpassed $1 billion, exceeding company expectations.
Dove’s public relations company built in news coverage for Asia with the Dove “models” appearing in 618 different newspaper clippings with a circulation of 139 million. By the end of 2005, sales in the Asian-Pacific market increased from 19 percent to 26 percent.
In the United States, the campaign got free advertising space from media coverage on national television shows reaching 30 million daytime television viewers. These shows included The Oprah Winfrey Show, which included the campaign everyday for a week, The Ellen DeGeneres Show, The Today Show, The View and CNN.
“Evolution” the viral video and the most famous execution of the campaign to date had global impact. The viral has been viewed more than 15 million times online and seen by more than 300 million people globally in various channels of distribution, including news coverage, by the estimation of Ogilvy Chairman-CEO Shelly Lazarus.
Dove and Ogilvy have won awards for this campaign. These include the two Grand Prix Cannes Advertising Awards in 2007. This is an unprecedented number of awards to win. “Evolution” the viral won Film Grand Prix and a Cyber Grand Prix. Dove won a silver IPA for effectiveness with the campaign. In 2006 it was awarded a Grand EFFIE, which honors the most significant achievement in marketing communications effectiveness.


In the News- Campaign for Real Beauty
From Ogilvy:

Other Sources:
Ad$pender database
Media Awareness Network- Dove's Campaign for Real Beauty
My Black is Beautiful Campaign
Nike campaign